The electricity sector is subject to comprehensive regulation through a collaborative federal-state framework. This legal architecture was written generations ago, and many assumptions embedded in these century-old laws no longer hold true.

The Policy Initiative supports the development of state and federal policies that reflect modern realities and enable a cleaner grid. We look for on the cracks in the electricity sector’s legal foundation that have been exposed by changes in the industry’s structure and available technologies.

As described below, the bulk of our work in this area falls into three interrelated programs: State Power Project, Unlocking Distributed Energy Resources, and the Power Shift Network.

State Power Project

States have traditionally determined the types of fuels (i.e. natural gas, coal, wind) that are used to generate electricity within their borders. However, as utilities increasingly rely on interstate federally regulated markets to procure electricity, states have developed new policies to ensure the grid includes renewable energy and meets environmental standards.

At Statepowerproject.org, we track recent and ongoing litigation challenging these and related state policies as unconstitutional or preempted by federal law. We also develop guidance on states can work within legal limits to achieve energy policy goals, and write policymaker summaries of recent academic work in this field.

Visit Statepowerproject.org for more.

In addition to the Statepowerproject.org website, related work includes:

Unlocking Distributed Energy Resources

Advancements in business models and technologies of distributed energy resources (DER) open new possibilities for electricity generation, transmission, and distribution. Many existing regulatory practices were designed without consideration of such opportunities, and may erect barriers to deployment of these resources. Regulators have numerous potential paths forward to unlock the values that DERs can provide to the system, ranging from modifying retail rate designs to making fundamental reforms to state utility regulation.

A sampling of our work includes:

Power Shift Network


Power Shift connects expert communities – energy and environmental law scholars, utility regulators, technical analysts, and policymakers – around a legal vision for tomorrow’s grid. We bring these communities together through workshops, webinars, and other forums to exchange ideas, drive cutting-edge scholarship, and translate that scholarship into practical tools and policy solutions.

A sampling of Power Shift projects includes:

  • Summary Report of a Discussion Marking the 80th Anniversary of the Enactment of FPA Title II Discusses the challenges of governing an evolving industry with an eighty-year old legal framework, identified opportunities for continued adaptation and reform, and suggested topics that warrant further research and discussion.
  • Webinar on Carbon Prices in RTO Markets Judy Chang (Brattle Group) provides an overview of the market mechanics of carbon pricing in electricity markets and Steve Weissman (Berkeley’s Goldman School of Public Policy) and Professor Joel Eisen (University of Richmond School of Law) discuss FERC’s legal authority to allow a carbon price in the markets it regulates.
  • Webinar on RTO Governance Professor Elizabeth Wilson (Univ. of Minnesota) joins Jeff Dennis and Suedeen Kelly (Akin Gump) to discuss the history of RTOs and case studies about their governance and decision making processes.